A Coherent Vision of Leadership

The late Steve Jobs,Founder of Apple

The understanding about Leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it. (Yukl, 2010:26) .

Founder Steve Jobs, world leading brand Iphone quoted, ” leadership is about inspiring people to do things they never could thought they could”. WHY ? IPhone has evolved tremendously throughout the years and still the leader in it’s category, more and more relevant to the globe! Keywords Innovate, Innovate, Innovate !

At this stage I am still acquiring knowledge to be a competent management team. The MBA topics on leadership , ethics , managing diversity , analysis of leader, manage change and vision of a leader helps me to understand the process of becoming a competent leader. It is challenging in this current changing world, however with constant learning, guidance and patience, it can be achieved.

Coming from global multinational company in consumer goods industry, sometime we face organisation that does not align or follow the trade standards. Standards makes international business transaction easier, for example ISO standard certification . Organisation which factor the five elements forecasting, planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling (Henri Fayol) reduces potential issues and complexity. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/5-functions-management-henri-fayol-kalpesh-shah/

But still some organisation failed to have SOP structure in placed, due to investment, talent, incompetent management or other reason.

My Experience joining a local SME, what did I do?

A competent management team is crucial in any business. And in an organisation big or small it is essential having the basic of elements like forecasting, planning, organising, commanding, coordinating, controlling and monitoring (Henri Fayol). for a business to be effective.                               https://journals.aom.org/doi/pdf/10.5465/ambpp.1981.4976628

BRIEF Example on the situation i face, and how I lead and improve the situation by adopting Henri Fayol principle to the team.

Forecasting issues , inventory were not done base on data’s rather base on someone inputs which lead to disposed of non-sellable products amounting to millions, forecast inaccuracy which translate meaning less cash flow.

=> Action : Better managed through negotiation with customers, implement frequent order cycle, based on trend forecasting, which equal less storage fees too.

Control of pricing for finance, avoid issued wrong price to customers by 60% less, came to realised three month later. And was highlighted by customers of the price differentiation.

=> Action : Overcome with System pre-validation checker could be implement. IT is able to incorporated the program function.

Finance controlling and tracking on Investment was not track, which resulting to overspend by 40% overall , this impacted the next business activity.

=> Action : To better managed, monthly report and accountability in place. Tracking system upon GM validation approval

Managing the business in a structured way, understand the task of individual key section helps to achieve the organisation goals and objective. So monitoring of business consistently via meeting , open conversation will create a cohesive and consistent alignment.

Journal of Critical Reviews / ISSN- 2394-5125 Vol 7, Issue 11, 2020 / Henri Fayol’s Principles of Management / https://www.open.edu/openlearn/money-business/leadership-management/discovering-management/content-section-1.1.1

Mis-organisation in management is also part of the manager adopting Deontological principle, emphasis on the DUTY itself rather than thinking the end result or outcome. To be able to think the consequence of the action is also part of the leader responsibility to groom the line manager in above case.

My perspective above, the management were not competent or perhaps did not have the chance to be trained. The fundamental expectation in every organisation of a manager is to drive the business effectively. Working in a well-organized planned environment will definitely create efficient. Thus, learning is more conducive, in a way motivating the employee. And it is the responsibility of the leaders to ensure everything is in place.

Another tools which comes handy for day to day usage is using Gibbs Reflective cycle as a guide the reflective cycle helps me to be better prepared in any situation. Below is another simple example to share.

Subject: Self Refection on my manager mistake as learning , or as a team

1) Description: “team issued wrong price point” to the customers, the impact was missing revenue and lead to negative profit and lost.

2) Feeling: The thinking was, why is there no one is aware? checking and tracking has not been activated?  System should have shown?  This feeling can be avoided

3) The evaluation experience:  The good example is, to the team, precaution is necessary. The bad is, the profit and Loss will affect the staff bonus or salary increment as a totally company. The experience was, have initiative to counter check, if we had miss or overlook some point or process.

4) Analysis of situation, what are the various option and feedback /comments to consider, should we get IT to implement a system to shows indicator ?

5) The conclusion: be humble enough to admit mistake, also setting example others. As a learning process, part of human error.

6) The Action Plan, share as learning, and takes preventive measure to avoid, have a clear guideline in placed if this happen again.

p-ISSN 2252-7427, e-ISSN 2541-3635 / https://journal.uniku.ac.id/index.php/IEFLJ/index

To be a better leader, needs constant learning, and open to feedback positively. I do agree there is always no right and wrong answer to it. There is always different approach to every situation. And we should also learn to view scenario at difference perspective. My take away through this leadership program as individual is ; 1) Leadership required constant learning no matter what age you are, meaning long life learning, to keep things abreast and be relevant and 2) What are my vision in the next five or ten years ? Be it career professional or personal.

References :

(Yukl, 2010:26).

(Henri Fayol).

https://journals.aom.org/doi/pdf/10.5465/ambpp.1981.4976628

Journal of Critical Reviews

ISSN- 2394-5125 Vol 7, Issue 11, 2020 / Henri Fayol’s Principles of Management

https://www.open.edu/openlearn/money-business/leadership-management/discovering-management/content-section-1.1.1

https://www.ukessays.com/collections/gibbs-reflective-cycle/

p-ISSN 2252-7427, e-ISSN 2541-3635 / https://journal.uniku.ac.id/index.php/IEFLJ/index

Managing Change

Perspective of change for better definitely bring positive vibes and induce opportunities. Changes in business management occurs may be due to company acquisition, a joint venture or even a replacement of a new general manager evolve changes.  And it is natural human behavior to react be it positive or negative which evolved adaptation. (Yuki, 2013).

Example : Change Management, Within The Organisation 

For instance, change of a new general manager in organisation will create curiosity. Question, is this person better, can be trusted, many ideas will form be it good or bad? Every leader has difference styles of leader style example Authoritarian, Democratic or Laissez-faire.

Using the argument of Hersey and Balancard (1997), the New General Manager should use two attribute bases on behaviors & needs of the responsibilities before the ideal leadership style being adopted.

This is explained situational leaders in two forms which the New General Manager can evaluate. Firstly, task behavior where the manager set objectives goal and directions to achieve.  Secondly relationship behavior where the manager set two-way communication, listen, support and motivate. Source:  Mullins (2016)

Source : Burns (2009:341)

Using the Burns graph above enable to tell you briefly how the situation the employee goes through in a business change management context and enable to do research carefully what is needed

The first entry is denial where it is typical of employee the need to change, second employee will defend on what they use to do, example prefer the manual process vs the online process which is more efficient.  Discarding, see and understanding the rational employee start to acknowledge and accept the changes, the new method is much easier. Adaptation starting to feel good on the new methodology and ensuring it is feasible for everyone. International the employee understands and accept the change and feel it is normal.                                                                                                            

The advantages changes in management sometime it is possible, with support, passing responsibility down to the line manager, get expertise team to assist. It allows productivity, create job opportunity and develop business.

The disadvantages if the decision is not a good one, it can involve many risks. Resigning, low performance, decline revenue and other factors.

Example : Change of Management, Affecting Business/Aqusition

Looking at different perspective change of management does not mean only internal organization it also applies externally example the value chain link and the end user meaning the consumers.

The Body Shop business journey start in 1976 from family own, sold in 2006 to Loreal group for 783Million pound. In 2017 Loreal sold to Natura a Brazilian cosmetic company.  The change of management from one to other is unpredictable in this global challenging market. Meaning the employee has to adopt the french working cultural, is this a good decision ? The cultural is significantly different.

In this aspect researcher argue the change of management to Loreal group wasn’t the best acquisition decision, due to incompatibility of two companies cultural and values. The analysis show Loreal team perhaps were not familiar on body shop historical attribute, they were either not social or environmental activist, that was the success of body shop vs other competitor. Meaning Loreal risking losing the competitive advantage.  Understanding Loreal is a giant leader in cosmetic industry the challenge is to have quicker return of investment.  March 2018SSRN Electronic Journal / DOI:10.2139/ssrn.3576017 / Article in SSRN Electronic Journal · March 2018

The chart below shows upon acquisition of Body Shop, LOREAL “repositioning the brand” and lead to sales dipping year by year.

http://naturalbeautyaudit.blogspot.com/2013/12/re-positionning-of-body-shop.html

Using Peter Drucker principle, perhaps Loreal situation could have been different. The five steps show understanding of management to view and giving others a vision and the capability to perform the task. Drucker argues manager should be able to demonstrate:

– Setting a realistic business objective, Loreal could potentially use historical data’s, performance evolution, trend to set the objectives.

– Analyses the various component by gathering different strategy, ideas, influences. Work on talent, expertise, structure

– Having effective teams n with specialty on social and environmental specialist   

– Insight with measurable performance up or down trend

– Training the people or team is crucial after the acquisition of Body Shop as they have different cultural and value back ground. Example small organization to big multinational organisation

 Based on Drucker’s 5 Operations of a Manager (1977)

Having measure as indicator on managerial effective  will perhaps help Loreal, to identified risk, talent, development or changes.

Source : Mullins (2010)

The question is it the right timing to sell Body Shop to Loreal back in 2006 ? Or is it better off to sell to a smaller organisation, with the same culture and value like Body Shop? Or Focus on Merger & Acquisition, small acquisition to maximize on the business operation cost, which the founder was trying to managed before the deal of Loreal. Certainly it was not an easy decision, sadly in big organisation every share holder looks at revenue and profitability within a time frame.

What’s your take readers ?

References

(Yuki, 2013)

Hersey and Balancard (1997),

Source:  Mullins (2016)

Source: Burns (2009: 341)

https://www.walesonline.co.uk/business/business-news/body-shop-sold-884m-deal-13247468

https://www.bbc.com/news/business-38905530

March 2018SSRN Electronic Journal / DOI:10.2139/ssrn.3576017

Article in SSRN Electronic Journal · March 2018

Based on Drucker’s 5 Operations of a Manager (1977)

Source : Mullins (2010)

Analysis of Leadership

Ethics simply in leadership is a form of moral value or principles. Good leadership traits composite of integrity, respects, honesty, selflessness and uphold responsibility. (Jon & Mary 2011).

The different between manager is, doing the things right, vs leaders doing the right thing who vision for next five, ten years. Leaders analyse risks, view future opportunities. At time in organisation , manager and leadership can overlap the task expected. As a manager one should demonstrate competency, able to lead, analyse and motivate a team with objective define as goal.  

On analysing on leadership style, honestly it can be varied from one situation to another. There is no one single ideology fit all.  Sometime its take dual or more approach of style for certain organisation or environment. (CMI 2013).

Democratic leadership styles looks more IDEAL way to adopt in a challenging business environment. Where is involved subordinates, delegating authority which mean create participation, induce creativity and motivate participation.  However, it can be varied in different environment context, where the adoption style could be authoritarian in a government organisation.

Let’s take at look at Malaysia Hofsted Findings to understand the different attributes Vs Singapore for now.

Is show the cultural in Malaysia they takes order order accept order from hierarchy , for instance a employee will seek guidance or instruction from the manager directly. Seen as not independent , need constant direction can be not so efficient, in business perspective.

Source : The scores used for the fifth dimension are based on the research of Michael Minkov as published in the 3rd and the latest edition of Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind (2010), pages 255-258.

The explanation from the graph differentiation show:
POWER DISTANCE Malaysia scores very high on this dimension (score of 100) which means that people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organisation is seen as reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat. Challenges to the leadership are not well-received
LONG TERM ORIENTATION Singapore scores 72, this high score is reflected in Singapore which shows cultural qualities supporting long-term investment such as perseverance, sustained efforts, slow results, thrift; being sparse with resources, ordering relationship by status and having a sense of shame (see also again the Confucian teaching). Singapore has also become one of the five dragons with an immense economic success. Whereas westerners have been looking for the truth, the Singaporeans are emphasizing virtue and the way you do things. They are always keeping their options open as there are many ways to skin a cat. Westerners believe that if A is right, B must be wrong, whereas people from East and Southeast Asian countries see that both A and B combined produce something superior. This mindset allows for a more pragmatic approach to business.
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE Singapore scores 8 on this dimension and thus scores very low on this dimension. In Singapore people abide to many rules not because they have need for structure but because of high PDI. Singaporeans call their society a “Fine country. You’ll get a fine for everything”.
Source : https://www.hofstede-insights.com/product/compare-countries/

Now we can relate WHY the style of leadership which Dr Mahathir has adopted and certain degree to leverage on democratic leadership style.

The power culture show very high in Malaysia, the people takes direction (what to do) from the manager /boss. The disadvantage side for business organisation is employee takes instruction and not fully independently. Less or not accountable, which means they no challenge .

And also, to understand why Singapore has score 72, due to the deliberative leadership?

It is essential to understand the different cultural dimension of countries. Under the dictation of Lee Kuan Yew, the citizen is governed by rules. Singapore take cultural qualities in to consideration as an investment.

EXAMPLE OF A GREAT LEADER IN ASIA

One of the great leaders in Asia is Dr Mahathir Mohamad who rule Malaysia for 22 years, his effective leadership put Malaysia as one faster developing countries to where it is today. With many achievement under his leadership, when we think of Malaysia, our brain reflect iconic the “Petronas Twin Tower”, ranked as one of the tallest building in the world. Other developments include Automation of Proton car brand, holding international event Formula One Grand Prix @ Sepang.

Base on researcher, Dr Mahathir Mohammad applied both autocratic and democratic style of leadership during his tenure. He dictates the task methodology by centralizing all the decision making and reduce the engagement. We have read in the articles or media how he manages the government team in UMNO during his tenure, those who does not agreed with him will make their way out from the parties.

PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 2454-5899 / Volume 5 Issue 1, pp. 498-506 / Date of Publication: 9th April 2019

The campaign vision of “Wawasan Malaysia 2020” in the past show transformation leader. His ability to influence the vision, ideas and values to his citizen. Which has four basics component of transformation Idealized influence, inspiration motivation, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration. Mullins 9th Ed, 2010

His personality trait includes best communicator, strategic and visionary way of thinking, a strict disciplinarian, has the power of uniting, excellent Influencing People by Speech. Some developing countries inspired the leadership of Dr Mahathir Mohamad, from a rubber-dependent economy backward into one of the wealthiest countries as well as high-tech Asian tiger.            

PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 2454-5899 / Volume 5 Issue 1, pp. 498-506 / Date of Publication: 9th April 2019

ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF A GREAT LEADER:

The great Asian leader founding father of Singapore Mr. Lee Kuan Singapore Prime minister for 25-year. He has a clear vision, planned and lead the nation with deep conviction. He transform Singapore into one of the top cities in the world to live, work and business. Singapore on the map are well known for the best port in the world, best airport, best airlines, top 10 ranking university, best nation for set-up business.

Researcher identified two types of principle being adopted; Base on achievement of Lee Kuan Yew leadership, more likely Kouzes and Posner’s (1995)3 framework which highlights five practices of effective exemplary leadership (Atwater, 1996)4, which is Inspire a Shared Vision, Challenge the Process, Model the Way, Enabling Others to Act, Encourage the Heart. 

Lee Kuan Yew shows a contrast of a transformation leadership, which were proven by his magnificent achievement of what Singapore has become today, he has four basics component of transformation in placed, Idealized influence, inspiration motivation, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration.

Some studies has also categorized Lee Kuan Yew under the “Deliberative” leadership style base on the era, it is hard to find something similar to this time.  Often, we analyse leader achievement as to see what leader style has been adopted. But If we were just looking at Singapore GDP growth without second doubt, he is an effective leader and excellent leader.  If we look at different perspective with what he has done, by far he is an exemplary leader!          

Global Politics Review, Vol. 1 No. 1, October 2015: 35-52 / page 35 Big Frog in a Small Pond or a Giant of Asia? Understanding
the Political Leadership Style of Lee Kuan Yew

Conclusion of analysis a leader, there is no specific theory that leaders can adopt, it is all link to one preference, behavior, situation or environment. Both has good personality traits of a leadership, vision of A nation, care and concern for the people, and the preparedness of the new generation to come. 

What is your view of these two leaders? 

References:

(Jon & Mary 2011).

(CMI 2013).

Hofsted Cultural Dimension

Mullins 9th Ed, 2010

PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 2454-5899/ Volume 5 Issue 1, pp. 498-506 / Date of Publication: 9th April 2019

Kouzes and Posner’s (1995)3

(Atwater, 1996)4,

Global Politics Review, Vol. 1 No. 1, October 2015: 35-52 / page 35 Big Frog in a Small Pond or a Giant of Asia? Understanding / the Political Leadership Style of Lee Kuan Yew

Leadership and Ethics

In a dynamic global business, ethical leadership is essential in any organisation. Leaders constantly over the past decade has been seeking knowledge on ethical leadership (e.g., Brown & Treviño, 2006; Sims & Brinkmann, 2003).

Ethical leaders engage business in acts and behaviours that benefit others, and at the same time, they refrain from behaviours that might cause any harm to others.  This include integrity, ethical standards, and fair treatment of employees. Ethical leaders incorporate moral principles in their beliefs, values, and behaviours

Ethical Leadership is defined as “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision making” … [and] the evidence suggests that ethical leader behaviour can have important positive effects on both individual and organisational effectiveness (Rubin et al 2010: 216-17).

Ethical Leadership in an organisation is important as it is link and reflection to the whole cycle or supply chain on what we do internally and externally. In Leadership and ethical there is two principle theory which is Deontological which speaks about following the rules or duty, which emphasis doing the right things.  While Teleological ethics speak about not following the rules, but the end result or actions lead to good result or bad cause.

Diagram : Kantianism is a Deontological approach to ethics & Bentham, Mills, Machiavelli Teleological approach to ethics.
  • For example, a deontologist might think hiring an opposite gender might be a wrong decision base on the rules set in the organisation. With reasoning will induce less efficiency, favouritism, flexibilities and overhead cost. The benefits removed all the “risk factors” and human resources task will be less complicated.
  • On the contrary a teleological might argue having mix gender will benefit the organisation, it will create more diversity, induce creativity, sensitivity and empathy. It is a ideal inclusive working environment.

Source: Dr Bill Grace: http://www.ethicalleadership.org/concepts-and-philosophies.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/duty_1.shtml

EXAMPLE A: IKEA TO PAY FAMILY $46 MILLION AFTER CHILD KILLED

It shows deontological concept of ethical leadership has been adopted base on evaluation. Giant Swedish furniture IKEA, to compensate family $46 million after child killed by falling drawers in their home.  Loss of Values and Consequent Behaviors.

Gallerman, W., S. (1986). Why good managers make bad ethical choices. ISBN 0-415-29836-X (volume 5) / Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society, Volume 1, Robert W. Kolb – Loyola University Chicago, USA

The management who were responsible should not just focus on “product availability on shelf” following his or her duties without factoring the potential risk of business ethics.

Brown et al. (2005) define ethical leadership as “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement, and decision making” (p. 120).The crisis could be avoided if the manager implement proper standard operation process. Invest in product research and development on safety aspect to avoid risk on harmful possibility, danger or inconvenience to end user.

They were not prompt inaction to the first accident, Ikea show lack of business professionalism, only after the death of a third child eventually removed the item off the rack.

The management should factor, the whole value chain of Ethisphere – reputation, corporate values, what is important to Customers and trust. Analyzing the possible impact of market share and decline in business revenue locally or globally.  With social media easily accessible it will have an impact on Ikea brand identity, customers review, country banned on business entry.

https://www.pmi.org/learning/library/ethics-moral-leadership-project-management-6185

Raghupathy, S. (2011). Ethics and moral leadership in project management. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2011—North America, Dallas, TX. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute

The learning shows the consequences of their actions lead to such crisis. Every point of value chain the management has to ensure employee, suppliers and end user has business ethics in place.

EXAMPLE B:  DANONE DUMEX EXPANDS PRECAUTIONARY RECALL OF MILK POWDER

It shows teleological concept of ethical leadership has been adopted base on evaluation.

As we know the milk scandal in China in 2008 with 300,000 toddlers, were poisoned with Chinese supplier added melamine in the milk powder. Unethical behaviour causing harm to others. https://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2008/10/09/the-story-behind-chinas-tainted-milk-scandal / By Paul Mooney, Contributor Oct. 9, 2008, at 5:50 p.m.

Therefor Danone is very caution on such matters, “Danone policy uphold their consumers as safety as absolute priority”. .

Moon, C., & Bonny, C. (2002). Business ethics: Facing up to the issues. London: The Economist Books

The learning shows the management factor all aspect of the value chain of Ethisphere. Business ethics is in place in the organisation.

Conclusion : Having an ethical behaviour is crucial throughout the value chain. It occurs in our daily decision process of our responsibilities, to do the right thing. To understand from the starting point to the end consumer of a product or services, which include supply chain, marketing, commercial and finance. In all business, ethic in place helps to minimise risk such as legal, compensation, consumer rejection, decline in revenue, non entry of brand due to local compliance.

What do you think of the theories, what are you thought readers?

References

(e.g., Brown & Treviño, 2006; Sims & Brinkmann, 2003).

(Rubin et al 2010: 216-17).

Source: Dr Bill Grace: http://www.ethicalleadership.org/concepts-and-philosophies.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/duty_1.shtm

Gallerman, W., S. (1986). Why good managers make bad ethical choices. ISBN 0-415-29836-X (volume 5) / Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society, Volume 1, Robert W. Kolb – Loyola University Chicago, USA

Brown et al. (2005) define ethical leadership as “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement, and decision making” (p. 120).

https://www.pmi.org/learning/library/ethics-moral-leadership-project-management-6185

Raghupathy, S. (2011). Ethics and moral leadership in project management. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2011—North America, Dallas, TX. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.

https://www.asiaone.com/singapore/danone-dumex-expands-precautionary-recall-milk-powder-products-singapore

https://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2008/10/09/the-story-behind-chinas-tainted-milk-scandal / By Paul Mooney, Contributor Oct. 9, 2008, at 5:50 p.m.

Moon, C., & Bonny, C. (2002). Business ethics: Facing up to the issues. London: The Economist Books

The Challenge of Managing Diverse Teams

In a current business setting diversity teams is no longer a new topic, what is important is having the right leader to manage the team.  It is important to have two-way communication with the teams to be able to have insight and feedback. Diversity teams can produce great performance in various aspect for example ; talent, creativity, innovation, time and cost efficiency. Diversity can also cultivate learning, strengthen relationship, and understand different culture, values and belief.  (Ibarra and Hansen 2011: 71).                                                                                               

Let’s take a look on Hofstede Insights – CROSS-CULTURAL MANAGEMENT meant for a European country like France vs Asian countries to understand the different attributes, score and culture understanding. This will gives an insight of the countries, people talent, the culture of working style and evaluate of business opportunity and risks.

Below : The scores used for the fifth dimension are based on the research of Michael Minkov as published in the 3rd and the latest edition of Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind (2010), pages 255-258.

Source : https://www.hofstede-insights.com/product/compare-countries/

FINDING EXPLANATION:

Power Distance Malaysia has the highest chart; it shows the employee takes instruction from a manager. Advantage on this will be less mistake however it will not be efficient in terms timing and doing the job independently. The position of executive level will be still fine as it is a structure day to day task with no management exposure. If the organization looking to have someone who is self-starter in business, who has better understanding of total business with management exposure. Someone potentially from Singapore, France or Indonesia, perhaps Asian will be ideal as he or she will understand already the local context in business or cultural.
Individualism In France the culture shown to be an individualist community, they are educated to be individually dependent since children. And friends are considered as part of families in their life circle. Asian show strong families bonding as a collective, the culture has been cultivated since generation and government in Asia also promote the important of families and values in various campaign and activities.
Uncertainty Avoidance France indicate the highest vs Singapore the lowest where the citizen is confidence with the government management. Example one, COVID19 measure and action has been put in place. Daily update has been made to the public for any assistance. Two government has standardization rules for employee handbook should a situation arise. Whereas in France workers union plays an important intersection against employee interest and benefits negotiation and strikes does often happen. It is often between the organization and union group.
H Source : https://www.hofstede-insights.com/product/compare-countries/

The diagram below show the ability managing diversity team , of different diversity age, tenure, different ethnic and racial groups can show a great performance lead by leaders.

The diagram show better relationship lead to better team performance toward the common goals in a organisation. (Austin, 1997).

Age Diversity : Advantages of younger employee they are able to contribute fresh innovative ideas for example, younger generation are advance in technology savvy, full commitment- able to work extra hours to complete a project, innovative ideas. While the disadvantages they can be impatient, leave the organization, reactive. Verses the senior tenure employee, they can share experiences, understand better due to experience, remain calm.

Advantage and Disadvantage of Gender Diversity: The advantages of male employee they are often more straight forward thinking which is good being spontaneous on contribution solutions. Disadvantage without sometime thinking about sensitivity on the other side of the clients. Whereas female women employee is good at multitasking, detail oriented, creative, sensitive about customer relationship.

1. Example Cultural Diversity – Communication, understanding, language

Working with difference cultural like French can be a challenge for Asian. Real scenario, someone from asia supply chain team working with French factory who speak less English can be stressful, vice versa. Communication in understanding may be an issue for business, example coordinating translation and understanding the difference documentations for local compliance and regulations.

Situation and Solution: The questions were raised is it better to recruit a French nationality? Will it will impact the overhead cost ? Or recruiting someone Asian with experience working with European – not just french, think beyond should be the business expand to other EU continent. Getting feedback from the team and suppliers will help the decision process. It is a collaborative decision. Article below from Harvard Business Review on collaborative leader a quick reading might be useful as a base understanding.

Harvard Business Review [online], 89, 7/8, pp. 68-74, retrieved from

http://hbr.org/2011/07/are-you-a-collaborative-leader/ on 2402/2014

Situation: recruit someone from asian who has experience in working culture with European MNC. Solution : Send the candidate for language course to be effective communicator. Other factors, reduce the local countries employment rate, candidate family and friends are already base locally . It will be an asset if he/she moved to another entity too.

2. Example : Cultural Diversity in Business Strategy End-Consumer

Addressing cultural diversity, can also lead to business example. Business strategy for the countries will varies too, being localisation. Example fast-food chain for KFC in Singapore, Malaysia, China, US or other countries may be different in menu or recipe due to difference culture but still maintaining the purpose of providing convenience food.

Between China& The United States. By: Joe Hornfield &ShannynHyland.

Situation : Overview, In china KFC dominant the market with estimated 5200 outlet vs McDo 2500, with turnover of estimated 5 billion USD. KFC in china is perceived as luxury food not as convenience offer. And to keep that positing of market share as No.1 , what did they do ?

Solution : KFC China, move forward to adapt the localisation concept to serve “local street foods” to be able to capture wider consumer base and also keep the revenue growing.  Building stronger team of diversity improve on service innovation, understanding retaining the employee and incentives to motivate. This include training and career development. Sketch, Edward (2001). Mentoring and Coaching Help Employees Grow. HR Focus Vol 78, no. 9, 1, 11-15.

From this learning it shows KFC takes the approach re-evaluating of planning, processing, monitoring, and controlling of management activity in adaptation local culture context. It has increased organisational efficiency considering manifestations of corporate and country culture.

Conclusion : We need culture to play the game in a business organisation. It is the glue to keep the society or community together. The rules in an organisation has different level which has pragmatic approach and it is changeable when it is required. In an organisation the management is accountable towards its employee. With example of successful leaders, mentor ship, ethics, leadership can be attained. Being a good leader is a constant learning journey. With business challenge it is a constant reminder always to stay relevant to the global business.

References:

(Ibarra and Hansen 2011: 71).

(Hofstede 2014)

Example a research with a diagram below show better relationship induce more innovation which lead better team performance toward the objective of the organization. (Austin, 1997)

‘Are You a Collaborative Leader?’ Harvard Business Review [online], 89, 7/8, pp. 68-74, retrieved from http://hbr.org/2011/07/are-you-a-collaborative-leader/ on 2402/2014

Sketch, Edward (2001). Mentoring and Coaching Help Employees Grow. HR Focus Vol 78, no. 9, 1, 11-15.

Singapore is a wealthy city state in south-east Asia. Once a British colonial trading post, today it is a thriving global financial hub and described as one of Asia’s economic “tigers”. It is also renowned for its conservatism and strict local laws and the country prides itself on its stability and security

source : https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-15961759

i started blogging to gain more understanding on Leadership Traits, at the same time to connect with others in different industry. This gives me the opportunity to share, get difference opinion , understanding different perspective… Please feel free to share or connect via my blog. I am currently base in Singapore, a cosmopolitan city.